Saturday, November 30, 2019

What is Man in Civilized Society Essay Example

What is Man in Civilized Society Essay Jean Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher whose disposition on human nature took him into the vantage of man’s birth and his existence on this earth. Rousseau’s Discourse On Inequality is a development of the man from freedom to his virtual and self created slavery. In a quest to attain the materialistic possessions, he had lost his own freedom, which was earlier, the part of his existence. Man in his â€Å"state of nature† slowly developed himself into a state of artificiality. His whole existence depends upon the fulfillment of his unending needs on the basis of which lies his relationship with others in the society and in environment. This dependency makes him slave to the others for whom he matters the most.   This aspect of human nature Rousseau discourses on the Origin of Inequality.All men are born equal yet there is inequality among them and how this inequality among people originated, the answer to it is found in our history. When the first man, a fter getting hold of a piece of ground, confirmed with pride, This is mine, (Rousseau, 431) and found other people believed him; he had already laid foundation of civilized society. It is a society whereby all men are striving to attain maximum fruits provided by nature but it is also a fact that this is not possible without the help of others. Every one is isolated yet all of them are mutually dependent upon each other and subsequently these are reciprocal needs that unite them. It is also known fact that it is almost very difficult to put a man under subjugation unless he is first put into the position where by he is incapable of doing things without others.Before the man had started learning to work in groups, the first thing man mostly cared for was his own matter of existence and another was his own self preservation. He only needed whatever the nature provided him with and he learned it with his own instincts. Hunger and eagerness to know what is happening around him exposed h im to different other ways to sustain on this Earth and among them was the way by which he could propagate his species. This act in him was quite insensitive in nature and without passion. When they were satisfied, both the sexes need not know each other and even children forgot their mothers.Primitive man was not totally ignorant about the ways to utilize natural resources to his advantage but soon he got exposed to many difficulties and the time came when he had to learn various ways to counter these difficulties like fruit laden tall trees making it impossible for him to collect them; competition with other groups who were more eager to collect the fruits from these trees; and the need to counter furious looking and dangerous tribes man. He adopted his own routine exercises as he had to be very swift, and very vigrous in nature with strong physique. He started the use of stones and sticks to create weapons and with his new profound discovery, man embarked his journey to conquer a ll the obstacles that came in his way and in many situations indemnified himself as a consequence of his defeat against much stronger than himself.As human race grew in large number, man’s needs also grew and subsequently there were number of changes in his way of living. These changes could be due to long winters and extremely hot summers which destroyed the fruits. These hardships might have induced the man to discover something new and this led to formation of an industry. At the seashore, man invented hook line. He also became fish eater and consumed a large number of fish. Then in the forests, he invented bows and arrows and became warrior. Lightenning or volcano must have induced in him the idea of generating electricity. First he learned to preserve whatever knowledge or expertise he considered useful to him, like learning ways to preserve the elements of nature, later the way to reproduce these elements and the method to cook the flesh of animals on fire he was initia lly eating raw and slowly he was able to overcome all the obstacles posed by the nature to maintain his survival. As more civilizations made their appearance felt across the globe, man’s dangers increased and he began to show more intensity towards his protection and care. All his characteristics like strength, weakness, slow speed, fearfulness and boldness changed according to the needs and increased his intensity to take the precautions necessary for his security. These traits in him also increased his power of reasoning according to the nature and the rules of his own area. He began to judge others in the same way he would judge himself and understood the way they thought and acted in conformity to his own.The experiences also taught him the love for others and the complexities in various relationships. He began to understand how their mutual interests would satiate in his dependence on the other men of his own area, and he also began to realize how their conflicting inter ests would make him suspicious of others. In the case where he thought his mutual interest lied, he would create temporary association with others, where no member has any restrictions and in later case, every one would seek their own self interest.   In this way, men began to understand to work in a mutual cooperation with each other and advantages in fulfilling them and slowly they began to understand to adopt language. For them at that stage, the language of rooks or monkeys was enough to help them communicate with each other.Through cries, gestures and with some sounds, they were able to send their messages across and with the passing of time, they began to articulate the sounds to form their own languages but they were totally imperfect and rude. These advancements led them further to develop themselves and now they neither slept under the tree nor in the caves but they invented hard and sharp stones; they would dug inside the earth, cut wood and carved out huts from them. Th is was the beginning of the first revolution but with this revolution also began the human’s journey towards his very complex and hard relations with the other human beings. Stronger men were able to build their huts first , followed by weaker ones who found themselves safer to imitate them.This was the beginning of the society, when human beings started feeling various emotions that would attach them to each other and from then on, there was a beginning of family relationships, humanity, love and affection. Each family became a small society, and united to each other to attain maximum satisfaction in their personal lives and in their union with each other.   The women confined in their homes and men went to the world outside to sustain their lives. This was the beginning of dependency not only among opposite sexes but also among other fellow beings. With this, their needs also began to increase and to meet these needs, they had to adopt and acquire different qualities and skills in relationship to others and also among each other. As said by Rousseau, â€Å"the society in its beginning stages and the relations already established among men required in them qualities different from those they derived from their primitive constitution.†(Rousseau, 435)Now the men were no longer contended with rustic huts, they were not making their own clothes with skins of animals or thorns of fish bones but required labor of others to produce for them luxuries they never dreamt of. This need led to the requirement of labor and dependency of man on each other. Each man relied on each other for fulfillment of his unending needs and desires. Population also began to rise and many civilizations developed which acquired lands and were confined within the precinct of their own boundaries, but this was not a limit because civilizations continued to grow and with each growth, they acquired more and more land. The lust of acquisitions for more land and hope for a revenu e from agriculture made it the most costly and valuable commodity. More and more forests began to be transformed into fields needed to be watered and tilled with men’s sweat and with this â€Å"slavery and misery were soon seen to germinate and grow with the crops.† (Rousseau, 436). Metallurgy and agriculture and the lust for more possession of these two forms of art developed jealously and pride in the man. The necessity for gaining the knowledge of other art forms arose to give agriculture a boost. While one man was needed to forge the iron, the other was needed to feed them. When workers increased in metallurgy, the workers in the agriculture got reduced, as they got involved in extraction of metals; and since some needed food in exchange of iron, barter system came into existence- food in exchange of product and vice versa.The things would have been in the state of the balance if the equal amount of food and minerals had been developed but this was not the case. Th e people who were stronger in the society were doing majority of work; the skillful of all were turning this opportunity to better their position; and the most ingenious were finding the way to reduce the labor, for e.g. farmer needed iron the most and the blacksmith needed wheat; and if both of them performed equal amount of   labor but by putting equal amount of labor, one earned a lot while the other hardly had enough to eat. â€Å"Thus it is that natural inequality imperceptibly manifests itself together with inequality occasioned by the socialization process.† (Rousseau, 437) It is these occupational differences which enabled men to be more noticeable and more effective, and influenced the fate of others.Man began to develop their own imagination and mental power to decide on several activities. He fruitfully developed several forms of art for his own purpose and the development of these various arts gave him his own rank and position in his own area of working. And he had established himself not just on the basis of the production of goods and services but also on the virtue of his own qualities like beauty, clever mind, strength, skills, and also his other merits and talents. These qualities in him enticed him to prove himself in the society as best in terms how he had made himself and the society to move forward economically, socially and independently, but he too began to show himself more than what he could achieve to his advantage. This trait in him became quite a dangerous proposition as it entails ostentation, deceptiveness, cunningness and all the vices that would make a man slave.Rousseau was quite right when he said that â€Å"On the other hand, although man had previously been free and independent, we find him, so to speak, subject, by virtue of a multitude of fresh needs, to all of nature and particularly to his fellowmen, whose slave in a sense he becomes even in becoming their master; rich, he needs their services; poor he needs t heir help; and being midway between wealth and poverty does not put him in a position to get along without them†. (Rousseau, 437)What followed was based on the simple fact that man is a social animal and required one person or the other to make him meet and fulfill his needs. But when the most powerful and the weakest try to make the most of each other’s strengths and weaknesses what entails is the unbridled passion for the usurpations of wealth by whatever means and this greed, lust and power make one man dominate the other, still there is no possibility of going on without each other. This is an essence of human civilization and it holds true in 21st century also no matter how advanced scientifically and technologically it is, the man is and would remain slave to his fellowmen.WORKS CITEDRousseau, Jean Jacques. â€Å"Discourse On the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men† Modern Political Thought: Readings from Machiavelli to Nietzsche. Ed. David Woott on. Indiana: Hackett Publishing, 1996. 404-463.Johnston, Ian. â€Å"On Rousseaus Discourse On Inequality†. Internet (2000). Available:, August 3, 2008.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Horror of War

Horror of War Free Online Research Papers The adversities of World War I are shown in the novel â€Å"All Quiet on the Western Front† by Erich Maria Remarque. He expresses the fights and difficulties that a World War I soldier had to undergo to keep his sanity and to stay alive. There were several characteristics to the difficulties the soldiers had to face in the line of duty. First, there was the indignation of emotions felt by the soldiers from what they were told in the beginning about war to the actual reality of it. Another aspect that made the war traumatic for the soldiers was the horrid battle conditions in which they had to fight in. Lastly and the most wretched aspect was the despair the soldiers had to endure when they saw friends and fellow members of their company being executed on the front line. World War I had emotions, horrid battle conditions and many horrendous deaths. There was an abundant amount of emotions throughout the war, from the beginning to the end. In the beginning they felt proud and patriotic they would be fighting in honor of their country, as they were told and encouraged by their older generation. As Paul Baumer stated â€Å"For us lads of eighteen they ought to have been mediators and guides to the world of maturity, the world of work, of duty, of culture, of progress-to the future. We often made fun of them and played jokes on them, but in our hearts we trusted them. The idea of authority, which they represented, was associated in our minds with a greater insight and a more humane wisdom. But the first death we saw shattered this belief. We had to recognize that our generation was more to be trusted than theirs. They surpassed us only in phrases and in cleverness. The first bombardment showed us our mistake, and under it the world as they had taught it to us broke in pieces†(12-13). This was Paul’s as well a s the other young men’s first discovery that they were basically tricked into joining the military. The older generation led the younger generation to believe that it was their â€Å"duty† to join. Their feelings of being proud and patriotic quickly changed to fear and despair as well as the loss of their sense of humanity. These emotions caused a great deal of misery along with the aspect that brought misery was the horrid battle conditions. The soldiers battle conditions on the front was hell. When they would go on nightly missions they would get pounded by artillery that would force them to hide in trenches. Which were swamp like and filled with buried corpses, human feces and was lice infested. Upon returning from days of being stuck in the trenches, some would return with the loss of their sanity. The trenches were hard to tolerate for any soldier on the front line, but a very wretchedly aspect of World War I was the loss of soldiers friends and fellow company members in battle on the front lines. Lastly and the most dreadful aspect of World War I was the many deaths that was afflicted by the sides of war. Death in the line of duty was gruesome. It would range from artillery, poison gases and blowing one another into pieces. Battle was extreme brutal violence and bloody deaths. Soldiers would walk around and see bodies of the deceased so of which were friends and have to endure the feelings of heartache. Also the deceased would become filthy and become infested with maggots creating unhealthy conditions for the living soldiers. Death was treated with impersonal efficiency within the war. This shows how wretchedly the deaths were in World War I. The war was filled with indignation of emotions, horrid battle conditions and horrendous deaths. This sums up in my opinion of how the war was depicted to soldiers fighting in the fronts of World War I. Paul Baumer along with the other young men that enlisted to serve in the military we under the assumption that they would be risking their lives for patriotism and honor, except they were unaware of the brutality and death that they had to face in the horror of war. Research Papers on Horror of WarHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionTrailblazing by Eric AndersonQuebec and Canada19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoCapital PunishmentHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows EssayBringing Democracy to Africa

Friday, November 22, 2019

Inventors of the Spark Plug

Inventors of the Spark Plug Internal combustion engines need three things to run: spark, fuel, and compression. The spark comes from the spark plug.  Spark plugs consist of a metal threaded shell, a porcelain insulator, and a central electrode, which may contain a resistor. According to Britannica a spark plug or sparking plug is, a device that fits into the cylinder head of an internal-combustion engine and carries two electrodes separated by an air gap, across which current from a high-tension ignition system discharges, to form a spark for igniting the fuel. Edmond Berger Some historians have reported that Edmond Berger invented an early spark plug on February 2, 1839. However, Edmond Berger did not patent his invention. Spark plugs are used in  internal combustion engines  and in 1839 these engines were in the early days of experimentation. Therefore, Edmund Bergers spark plug, if it did exist, would have had to have been very experimental in nature as well or perhaps the date was a mistake. Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir ​​ This Belgian engineer developed the first commercially successful internal combustion engine in 1858. He is credited for developing the spark ignition system, which is described in US Patent #345596. Oliver Lodge Oliver Lodge invented the electric spark ignition (the Lodge Igniter) for the  internal combustion engine. Two of his sons developed his ideas and founded the Lodge Plug Company. Oliver Lodge is better known for his pioneering work in radio and was the first man to transmit a message by wireless.   Albert Champion During the early 1900s, France was the dominant manufacturer of spark plugs. Frenchman, Albert Champion was a bicycle and motorcycle racer who immigrated to the United States in 1889 to race. As a sideline, Champion manufactured and sold spark plugs to support himself. In 1904, Champion moved to Flint, Michigan where he started the Champion Ignition Company for the manufacturing of spark plugs. He later lost control of his company and in 1908 started the AC Spark Plug Company with backing from Buick Motor Co. AC presumably stood for Albert Champion. His AC spark plugs were used in aviation, notably for the trans-Atlantic flights of Charles Lindbergh  and Amelia Earhart. They also were used in the Apollo rocket stages. You may think the current-day Champion company that produces spark plugs was named after Albert Champion, but it was not. It was a completely different company that produced decorative tile in the 1920s. Spark plugs use ceramics as insulators, and Champion started producing spark plugs in their ceramic kilns. Demand grew so they switched completely to producing spark plugs in 1933. By this time, the AC Spark Plug Company had been bought by GM Corp. GM Corp was not allowed to continue using the Champion name as the original investors in Champion Ignition Company set up Champion Spark Plug Company as competition. Years later, United Delco and the AC Spark Plug Division of General Motors combined to become AC-Delco. In this way, the Champion name lives on in two different spark plug brands.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The most common types of assault and battery a nurse can be criminally Research Paper

The most common types of assault and battery a nurse can be criminally charged with - Research Paper Example The researcher opted for this research topic because it cuts across as unique when compared to most of the nursing research topics, which nursing students as well as other researchers usually study. This new study will bring fresh approach in studying about the nursing profession. Most commonly, researchers dwell on investigating about specific issues revolving nursing care. However, in respect to the increased cases of misconduct by nurses, it is of essence to carry out a study that will not only inform nurses of some of the acts that they do, which fit as assault and battery, but it will also seek to discourage such misconducts among nurses. From a student’s perspective, this research topic is important since it will enable the student to understand the clear distinction between assault and battery. Secondly, the nursing student will be able to know what acts or deeds constitute to either assault or battery. Thirdly, the nursing student will be able to know what the law says about assault and battery by nurses and the possible liability that an offending nurse can get because of his or her misconduct. To the nursing profession this research topic will help to highlight on the issue of ethical practices within the nursing profession, that is, what acts fit as ethical practices within the nursing profession, and most importantly what acts fit as unethical nursing practices. Secondly, this research topic will be significant to the nursing profession because it will highlight on the issue of accountability enshrined in nursing care. Johnstone (2009) notes that in the nursing profession, the practicing nurses have to be accountable to themselves, their patients, their employer (healthcare organization), the surrounding environment, which also includes the society and the nursing profession. In this regard, Johnstone (2010) stated that for every action that a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

SIOP Lesson Plan Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

SIOP Lesson Plan - Research Paper Example Learners in all the grades benefit both in the content area and the bilingual aspects. This paper will prepare a SIOP lesson plan for grade five students under the food and nutrition topic whereby, working in collaborative groups, they will be required to identify the nutritional values of food served in the school cafeteria. This paper will describe a learning project whose length is five class periods covering multiple content and sheltered instructional approaches that address learners with special needs and the ELLs. The standards used are contained in the New York State ELA, and the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). New York State ELA Standards Standard 1: The students will read and write, then listen and speak for the purpose of understanding and information. Standard 3: The students will read and write, then listen and speak for the purpose of evaluation and critical analysis. This lesson plan will address the above requirements by ensuring students r ead, listen, write and speak effectively so as to comprehend content, present information, communicate with fellow students and evaluate their own progress. TESOL Standards Standard 1: Within the school environment, ELLs will communicate in English for both instructional and social purposes Standard 2: ELLs will communicate ideas, concepts and information that facilitate their academic success in the art of language. The lesson plan will require the ELLs to use English in their communication of ideas, concept and information throughout the project (Tharpe & Gallimore, 1988). Content Objectives Students will be able to know nutritional values of food offered for lunch on the school menu by engaging in learning groups and investigative methods to research on the content. They will then present their findings in PowerPoint form in groups. Language Objectives Students will be able to communicate information verbally. They will re-tell the contents of the curriculum and use appropriate v ocabulary to describe what they have learnt. Although content and language objectives are presented as distinct objectives, they are with the standards as well as each other. Vocabulary The key vocabulary words are vitamin, sodium, fiber, mono-unsaturated fat, poly-unsaturated fat, protein, carbohydrate and calorie. Materials KWL chart, graphic organizer created by the teacher, computer projection screen, PowerPoint, classroom laptops, internet resources, and recipe cards. Strategies The strategies are driven by language and content standards, and the implementation is done with consideration to the theories of language acquisition that appeal to an assorted scope of learners. The learners are presented with an opportunity to utilize technology resources and graphic organizers, re-state information, work in mutual learning groups and discover information through research. Because the plan is designed for both learners with special needs and ELLs, strategies like jigsaw are used for their proven instructing effectiveness. A meaningful, thematic mode of instruction facilitates acquisition of second language, gives room for collaboration, provides scaffolding, and allows opportunities for use of oral and written English while building background. Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy, the strategies are also designed to develop the learners’ mental skills, grow their emotional or feelings aspects and enhance their

Saturday, November 16, 2019

To what extent Essay Example for Free

To what extent Essay For Romans, religion and politics were inseparable, for example, priests were always senators. Augustus needed to be seen as an emperor if he wanted to be one, he used religion to do this; a religious figure would never have been challenged, they were respected and obeyed. When Augustus became pontifex maximus in 12 BC he became, not only the saecular head of the Roman Empire, but the religious leader as well. Augustus used religion to reorganise the state, establish his own legislations and revive old festivals and ceremonies. However, although the advantages to himself were clear, he needed to be aware of Caesar’s fate and not offend tradition. Augustus knew that he had to be very careful about how he went about things in Rome but, in the East, it was a lot more acceptable as the people were already used to worshipping their leaders. If he could be worshipped in the East first, it may make it easier to be worshipped in Rome itself later on. In private it suited Augustus to be integrated with state religion, as demonstrated in the Res Gestae; â€Å"I was pontifex maximus, augur, quindecemviri sacris faciundis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . However, in public Augustus had to appear respectful of traditional practice, as shown on the Ara Pacis. After his death Augustus could be worshipped with no issues, during his lifetime however, it was in no way acceptable. Augustus had to resist the creation of an imperial cult during his lifetime to avoid losing all popular support and ending in the same way as his predecessor did. This said, the creation of an imperial cult, if successful, would bring together the disparate provinces that he governed, bringing not only power but also prestige. An imperial cult was the mass veneration of not only Augustus’ genius, but that of his family and successors. Being a member of the Julian line, he already had some claim to a link with the Gods. Augustus’ Prima Porta, fashioned in a Hellenistic style, not only shows his pietas, but his link with the God of Love, Venus. Clinging to his body is cupid riding a dolphin; as cupid is the sibling of Aenus who founded the Julian line, the direct message that he is involved with the Gods is already being propagated. Equally, the fact that Caesar had been made a deity, established the notion that he was a semi-deity in the minds of many Romans. In the Mediterranean world, Augustus’ provinces were singular in that the citizens of Rome would have regarded treating your ruler as a deity as sacrilegious and immoral. Conversely, in the East, this was not only acceptable, but also demanded. Ptolemaic Egypt was cult-like and worshipped pharaohs as Gods. Due to heterogeneous territories, religion was seen as a uniting factor for rulers to forge links between the populace and themselves. The idea of Augustus openly declaring himself as a deity during his lifetime was an impossibility that would have led to exile or assassination. However, just as Caesar had supposedly risen to the heavens to be immortalised as a deity after his death, he too could be worshipped like this. The evidence of this is demonstrated by the construction of various temples built to him after his death in AD 14; for example, the Temple to Divus Augustus is shown on the Denarius of AD 158. Moreover, Suetonius’s Life of Augustus shows us ways in which, rather than being an innovator of a new imperial cult, Augustus actually restored traditional religious practices. By appearing to ‘buy into’ the conservatism of Roman religion, Augustus would have pleased the tradionalist majority and allowed his continuing expansionist military effort and transgression of the cursus honourum, without worry of religious misdemeanour. Suetonius describes his burning of â€Å"anonymous or unrespected authors† keeping only the sibylline books. He also revived certain rites such as the Augury of Safety, the flamen dialis, the Lupercalia, the Saecular Games and the Compitalia. Additionally, he extended the number and prestige of priesthoods. This demonstrated the difference between Augustus’ private and public goals; whereas privately he wished to integrate himself into state religion, publically he had to show piety and respect towards tradition. As previously noted, in the Res Gestae, Augustus lists his religious powers and titles; considering that the Res Gestae was effectively an autobiography, it can be inferred that this was received positively as he was satisfied to publish this on stele, it is also evident that the Res Gestae was propaganda designed to influence and so can not be deemed as a reliable, nor objective source. Prompting the creation of an imperial cult would have enshrined Augustus as a deity, given him infinite power to develop his empire and secured his legacy forever. However, it was vital that he treaded the delicate line between paying lip service to Roman conservatism whilst at the same time, attempting to set himself above, and apart from, the average Roman politician. Associating himself with Roman deities was an ideal way of achieving this goal and there is a huge range of evidence that he did very little to resist this. Indeed, it is quite possible that he actually endorsed it. Suetonius describes how he renamed the month Sextilis, to August and therefore â€Å"put†¦ straight† the calendar. Equally, the Horologium Augusti in the Campus Martius, an immense sundial drew attention to Augustus in a manner unavailable to other Romans. The Serviri Augustutales at Narbo of AD 12-13 was altar dedicated to Augustus. It proclaimed that the Julian ancestral colony of Narbo Martinius had â€Å"bound themselves to worship his divinity for ever†. Additionally, the Temple of Augustus at Pula (built between 2 BC and AD 14) and the Temple of Augustus at Tarraco were also built. The Temple of Augustus at Pula had a dedication reading â€Å"Roma and Augustus Caesar, son of deity, father of the fatherland† indicating that the temple was primarily dedicated to the goddess Roma, the personification of Rome, making himself a secondary figure to the City in order to not be seen to be encouraging the creation of an imperial cult. It could be argued that, if Augustus was genuinely against the worship of himself and his family, he would have prevented provincials from establishing temples in his name despite the fact that the Hellenistic practice of ruler-worship was well established in certain provinces. However, the evidence suggests that this was not the case as Augustus did little to nothing to prevent the construction of such temples. Indeed, Augustus, upon hearing that the people of Tarraco had reported a palm tree had grown on an altar to him, is recorded by Quintilian to have responded, â€Å"That shows how often you light a fire there†. This clearly opposes the view that he shrinked from such worship as it suggests he encouraged it. However, as Quintilian wrote this decades after the event may have happened, the reliability of this source must be questioned. Furthermore, the aureus of 19 BC depicts the Altar of Fortuna Redux, an altar at the Porta Capena to the Home-bringer, praising her for Augustus’ safe return. This was also the site of the festival of Augustalia; the act of having sacred festivals dedicated to you was naturally a privilege usually reserved to the Gods. Furthermore, the close proximity of Temple of Apollo Palatinus with Augustus’ house blurred the lines between his numen and his power as they came together as an imperial residence. The Hymn of the Salii, or Carmen Saeculare was the song of the ‘leaping priests’ of Mars, keepers of the ancilia and undoubtedly revered positions. The fact that they added his name to this god-praising song was highly unconventional and a bold move if Augustus had ordered this. Augustus evidently sponsored Augustan Literature, through Maecenus’ patronage of several poets. There are many clear examples of Augustus either being associated with the Gods in literature, or being portrayed as god himself. There is no doubt that Augustus knew about these comparisons prior to recital or publication and therefore encouraged these attempts to link himself with deities. Virgil’s Aeneid is the prime example of this; the poem depicts Augustus descending from heaven with â€Å"Iulus†, loaded with the wealth of Egypt of the â€Å"Orient’s spoils† and that â€Å"he too shall be called upon in prayer†. To add to this emphasis of his connection with Iulus, the building of the Temple to Divus Julius in the Forum Romanum and the Temple to Mars Ultor in the forum of Augustus both underline his connection to the semi-deity Caesar through his completion of filial duty. Horace’s Odes 1. 2 similarly shows Augutus as the gods’ ‘right hand man’. Horace describes the moral decline and religious neglect of the period of civil war and strife and Augustus is called forth to atone for previous sins and to â€Å"aid the crumbling Empire†. Such glowing accounts of Augutus can be explained as many of the poets were convalescing from lost estates from civil war times and, through indirect sponsorship from Augustus, were expected to translate underlying messages of the regime into poetry. Naturally, this kind of blatant worshiping was only acceptable in the abstract medium of poetry, as poetry was known to exaggerate reality and stretch any possible truth. Overall, the weight of evidence tends to suggest that Augustus did not try particularly hard to resist the creation of an imperial cult during his lifetime. Although he showed piety and respect to tradition throughout his reign, his sanctioning and, often encouragement, of provincials worshipping him demonstrated that he wished to be classed as a divine being as it meant that he would have gained all possible power. The creation of an imperial cult resulted in an almost tyrannical rule, where Augustus could not be questioned.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Origin, Distribution and Classification of Cultivated Broccoli Vari

The Origin, Distribution and Classification of Cultivated Broccoli Varieties Of the many different vegetable crops now under cultivation in both the U.S. and abroad, one that has gained increasing importance is that of broccoli. Although it does not constitute a significant portion of most people's diets, it has nevertheless experienced a kind of "revival" in recent years and has become increasingly popular (Schery, 1972; Heywood, 1978). It may even be said that broccoli has emerged from relative obscurity and attained the status of a worthwhile garden vegetable,"(Talbert, 1953). The botanical family to which broccoli belongs is the Brassicaceae, also known as the Mustard family. The Brassicaceae is a large family comprised of approximately 3,000 described species apportioned among 350-380 genera. The precise number of genera will vary depending on the authority(Heywood, 1978; Keil & Walters, 1988). The classification scheme for broccoli and indeed all of the other brassicas is clear and straightforward until one reaches the species level. At that point the addition of numerous subspecies, varieties, and cultivars results in a rather complex and confusing arrangement of-the taxa in question. For example, the scientific name for broccoli, Brassica oleracea (L.), is also shared by cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, and tronchuda kale, to name a few. Despite the fact that all of the aforementioned varieties are similar to one another and to broccoli, and are therefore referred to as B. oleracea, they are neverthele ss separate entities. Most authorities today consider there are two major varieties of broccoli, B. oleracea (L.) var. botrytis or cauliflower broccoli and B. oleracea ... ... Heywood, V.H. 1978. Flowering Plants of the World. Mayflower Books, New York. Narain, A. 1974. Rape and mustard. pp. 67-70. In J. Hutchinson (ed.), Evolutionary Studies in World Crops: Diversity and Change in the Indian Subcontinent. Cambridge University Press, London. Schery, R.W. 1972. Plants for Man. 2nd ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs. Snogerup, S. 1980. The Wild Forms of the Brassica oleracea Group and Their Possible Relations to the Cultivated Ones. pp. 121-132. In C. Gomez-Campo, K. Hinata & S. Tsunoda (eds.), Brassica Crops and Wild Allies: Biology and Breeding. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo. Talbert, T.J. 1953. Growing Fruit and Vegetable Crops. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia. Terrell, E.E. 1977. A Checklist of Names for 3,000 Vascular Plants of Economic Importance. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook No. 505, pp. 21-22.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Women have been dealing with what we call today as ‘gender issues’ (to be politically correct) since the beginning of time

Women have been dealing with what we call today as ‘gender issues' (to be politically correct) since the beginning of time. Most other people refer to it as chauvinism or discrimination. This thing however we refer to it as has existed since the beginning of time. Referring back to the bible times of Adam and Eve there was well documented issues of gender differences. We go back to the creation of ‘man' do you really think that man is superior because he was created first, or the fact that man was used to create woman? Or the fact that is was the woman who ate the fruit off of the forbidden tree, does that make the women less superior. Both man and women were ultimately created equal and everybody makes mistakes. Look at cave men for instance, have you ever heard the phrase cave women. No you haven't, when we picture ‘cave men' the way society has groomed the thoughts into our mind, we picture very unattractive men with their clubs dragging their women around by the hair. Women were there only to cook and to bare the children of the tribe. But why has society chosen to put these images out there for us to believe. Do we have any proof that their woman were dragged around by the hair, or is it a simple rhetoric devise to play in the mind of our subconscious thinking to lead us to believe that men have and always have been more superior than women. As the ages have passed not much has changed for women. It wasn't until WWII that women were even given the chance to work. During that era there were no men to work, the economy was taking a serious hit, so they looked upon the women to fill the positions that the men had filled for so long. The women took to their new roles as champions doing the manual hard labor in the factories, leaving their children at home to be cared for by another. During that time in our history I think many people have forgotten the significance of what happened. While then men in our country were out fighting and dying to ensure our freedom, the women were here keeping our country alive the best they could, and they succeeded. At that time women had no education and no training but they managed to be strong and get out there and fight. They also in a way fought for the freedom of our country, the men could have not succeeded without the women that took that stand. It is a known fact that even some fifty years later women do not receive the same opportunities as men. Women have earned the right to be considered as equals and deserve the same equal rights to work as men do. Women have earned that right and have fought for equality, but they still do not receive it. Women do not receive the same job opportunities, promotions and pay as men do. Men are more likely to gain the success in these areas than women, even if the woman is more qualified. Women are the caretakers of the world. Women are the ones who take care of the families; families are what form communities, communities are what make the nations. â€Å"If women have a chance to work and earn as full and equal partners in society their families will flourish. When families flourish, communities and nations will flourish. † (Clinton, H. R. ). If women are successful they will be able to better provide for their families. In doing so, they give their families a better chance at a prosperous life. Society still has a long way to go; according to The American Prospect Inc. Over twenty-five years ago the United Nations developed a global bill of rights to end discrimination against women. The All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) was signed by all nations except the United States, Iran, Somalia, and Sudan. For years Jesse Helms led the attack against CEDAW, calling it the work of â€Å"radical feminists† with â€Å"anti-family agenda. † à ¢â‚¬Å"I do not intend to be pushed around by discourteous, demanding women,† he said proactively on the Senate floor in 1999. Helms, is no longer around to exercise his objections. George W. Bush is now standing in the way, even as he justifies two wars against fundamentalism, at least partly in the name of advancing the status of women abroad. † (Chesler, E). Which shows that this world still has along way to go before it sees women as equals. George W. Bush is worried about â€Å"advancing the status of women abroad†, but what about the status of the women right here in the United States. He is the president of the United States and not that of the women abroad. As long as we still have these views that women are not equal. Society will never gain the talent, perspective, and ambition for success that women can bring to the table. â€Å"Around the world, empowering women is now widely considered essential to expanding economic growth, reducing poverty, improving public health, sustaining the environment, and consolidating transitions from tyranny to democracy. A near universal consensus is calling for fundamental changes in practices that have denied rights to women for centuries. If the democrats retake the White House and/or the Senate, it will be rime to insist that the United States finally become an official party to this agreement. † (Chesler, E) A good example of empowering women right here in the United States is based on an article in the San Diego Union Tribune. Based on the statistic of the United Nations, â€Å"Women made up 16. 3 percent of parliament worldwide at the end of 2005, edging up from 15. 7 percent a year earlier. Based on this groups latest statistics, according to the annual survey women have made steady progress in elections since a landmark world conference in Beijing in 1995, when females made up just 11. 3 percent of the world's lawmakers. Women on an average made up 20 percent of the deputies elected in the 39 countries that held parliamentary elections last year. Out of nine countries more than 30 percent of those elected or returning to office in 2005 were women, with Norway topping the list at 37. 9 percent. † (Reuters 2006) The Inter- Parliamentary Union found that women fared the best in Nordic countries and the worst in Arab states. The United States on the other hand ranks 69th among the world's nations, with 66 women in the House of Representatives (15. 2 percent) and 14 female senators (14 percent). The proportion of female legislators fell in eight countries last year: Bolivia, Bulgaria, Denmark, Dominica, Egypt, Germany, Kyrgyzstan and St. Vincent, and the Grenadines. In two countries, Kyrgyzstan and Micronesia, elections were held in 2005, but no women won seats. In Saudi Arabia, whose parliament was appointed, no women were named because women there do not have the right to vote or run for election. Turns out, that brought the number to a total of nine countries without a single female lawmaker as of the end of last year in 2005: Kyrgyzstan, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saudi Arabia, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and the United Arab Emirates. A new and recent study has shown an impressive and dramatic change from the numbers that we have been seeing in the past. Since 1975 women from all different races have struggled to compete with men on a professional level. As it appears race as well as gender plays a big part in what kind of job one will get, not to mention how much they will be earning. From the graph below is information collected from the online almanac, and as you can see over the past twenty-eight years. White males have dominated the economy white men have maintained a hundred percent of the median annual earnings. While white women, on the other hand over the same twenty-eight year span have increased their median annual earnings by approximately twenty percent, and still only hold seventy-five percent of the median annual earnings. That is twenty five percent less than white men. The Wage Gap, by Gender and Race This graph shows the median annual earnings men and women of different races. It also measures the difference in wage earnings over a twenty -eight year period. As we can see from the graph above race plays an equal part in the effect of annual earnings. Black males are up only four percent in twenty eight years. Hispanic males are down by nine percent over the same twenty eight year span. Black women are up only ten percent and Hispanic women are up ten percent over the past twenty eight years. In America and in other countries all over the world it is about time to start breaking through the barriers and stereotypes that society has welcomed for too long. America should be a role model for the rest of the world. America is considered the land of the free, but as long as these barriers continue to discriminate and divide our country by race and color is it really free? Sure America is known for having the best opportunities in the world, but what is the benefit of having those opportunities if it is subject to race or gender? These are the questions that one must ask every time that thought of race or gender comes into question. That's just it; it shouldn't be a question or an issue. If the qualifications meet the need then there's your answer. Have you ever wondered if you were to submit a resume without a full name just a first initial and a last name what kind of response do you think you would get? Well let me give you some insight into what might happen. I tried this research method to prove my theory that men are more preferred for a job than women and the responses I received were unbelievable. I submitted my resume to several different lines of employment such as computer technology, emergency medical technician (E. M. T), and firefighter. I have significant experience, training, certifications in all these lines of employment. When I received calls from perspective employers they would call (my cell phone, my phone contact number listed on the resume and T. Torres as the name listed on the resume. ) and ask if Mr. Torres was available. Right there they automatically assumed that my gender was male when in fact I am female. When the correction was made the response that I received was even more amazing. All of a sudden they did not have any openings at the time but would call me in the future if anything was available. It is amazing that the judgments that are passed in society today based on your gender or race. We as society could accomplish more than we know if we eliminate gender and racial boundaries, not to mention to overcome the stereotypical images that society has painted for us to believe. According to Russian Education and Society, â€Å"Men hold stereo typical traits of professional competence, rational thinking and an active life stance. Women hold the stereotype of social and communicative skills, heartfelt warmth, and emotional support. † (Razumnikova, O. M. ). We, as society are blaming the gender issues on tradition or religion. Boys and girls are taught at a very early age that ‘girls do this and boys do that'. Eventually as the world progresses children should be taught that girls and boys can do anything alike. There is nothing a man can do that a woman can't, and this is how children should be raised. Motherhood shares the same responsibilities as fatherhood does. So in turn family obligation should not be a factor into a woman getting a job, a promotion or how successful she can be. Women's rights should not be talked upon as if they are separate from human rights. Women are in fact human and should be treated alike. There is a lot of talk classified as human rights, women's rights, and civil rights: they are one in the same, rights are rights and every person should be entitled to the same equal rights as the other, man or woman. I do truly believe that if this was the case the world could be and would be a better place.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Article Example

Thomas Sowell said, â€Å"The first lesson of economics is scarcity: There is never enough of anything to satisfy all those who want it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  In this paper the author will define economics, microeconomics, macroeconomics, the law of supply and demand and will identify the factors that lead to a change in supply and demand. The author will also analyze the basis for the trends in consumption patterns as discussed in the article â€Å"Alcoholic Beverage Consumption in the U. S. : Patterns and Trends.Economics Defined According to our text, â€Å"Economics is the study of how human beings coordinate their wants and desires, given the decision-making mechanisms, social customs, and political realities of the society (Colander, 2008). Economics can be simply defined as the study of production, allocation and consumption of goods and services. There are generally three central problems that an economy must solve, they are: what, and how much to produce, how to produce it, and fo r whom to produce it.This paper will discuss microeconomics, the law of supply and demand, and the factors that lead to a change in supply and demand. Micro and Macroeconomics Economics is important and used in all facets of life. There are many issues across the world that are based on economic aspects, especially when making decisions that involve profit sharing, income allocation, minimizing unemployment, and price gauging.Some businesses will use economics to drive prices and determining on purchases or investments. Microeconomics is â€Å"The study of individual choice, and how that choice is influenced by economic forces† or also known as the invisible hand theory. Decisions that are based on microeconomics are typically motivated by costs; those costs can be of financial costs which include average fixed or total variable. Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a†¦

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Adhd Essays - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Free Essays

Adhd Essays - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Free Essays Adhd Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders among children. About 3 percent to 5 percent of American children are affected by this disorder. This disorder is commonly mis-diagnosed in children who are very hyperactive, assuming that very hyperactive kids have this disorder. In this paper I plan to discuss ideas such as: the symptoms, theories of causation, risks, and how this disorder is looked at and treated. There are signs that a child may be affected by ADHD, which are very noticeable in some cases. Some of the physical symptoms that are involved include hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsitivity. When discussing inattention, the idea that individuals have difficulty sustaining interest in finishing a task, strangely, a person with ADHD may have no problems with attention while doing an activity they enjoy, but wont be able to finish a complicated or new task. People with this disorder are often noted for their inconsistencies, have bad handwriting, miss details, and are often forgetful. But because the individual over-focuses on something of great interest, or something that is highly stimulating, many times an untrained observer may assume that this ability to concentrate negates the possibility of ADHD being a concern, especially when they see children able to pay attention while working one-on-one with someone, doing something they enjoy, or can sit and play a video game or watch television for hours on end. In addition to problems with attention, people with ADHD can be fidgety, and appear to be moving around constantly. Which leads me to myth that all people with ADHD ar e hyperactive, this is not always the case. Because society has traditionally thought of a person with ADHD as being hyper, many children who have this disorder with no signs of being hyperactive are not being identified or treated. For those individuals who are not hyperactive, they are often thought of as a day-dreamers or an absent-minded professors. The non-hyperactive children with ADHD most often seem to be girls, but it is 5 to 7 more common in boys. (Booth, 2000) Another symptom that is very common in people with ADHD is impulsitivity, which means that the individual seems to be unable to think before they act. They may interrupt others who are talking, blurt out inappropriate comments, or have a hard time waiting their turn. Regardless of the consequence, people with ADHD can out as if they are out of control. Although researchers are still studying exactly what causes ADHD, they know what doesnt cause it, and that is sugar. Sugar and food additives dont cause ADHD, and in research study in 1982 the National Institutes of Health concluded that restricting sugar and food additive consumption only helped about 5% of the children with this disorder. Minor brain injuries from early infection, or birth complications also have been ruled out, head injuries can only explain a few cases of ADHD, not all of them. Television watching, poor home and school environments also dont cause ADHD, they may contribute to behavior that resembles the symptoms. Instead new theories point to low levels of activity in some parts of the brain as an indicator of ADHD. In one study, investigators found that control attention, meaning that areas were less active and caused inattention. Cocaine and heavy alcohol use during pregnancy may also distort developing nerve cell. Using alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which leads to low birth weight, and certain physical and intellectual impairments. Many FAS children also show the same symptoms as children with ADHD. I feel that you can rule out genes, because they probably account for some ADHD causes. Children with this disorder usually have at least one relative with ADHD, with one-third of fathers with ADHD having children with disorder also. More important, identical twins are often both affected.(National ADD, 97) Treatment is available for people who have ADHD, which includes therapy and drug treatment. But in order to make sure these symptoms are from an actual case of ADHD, and not from an emotional or physical disorder, a medical professional would need to look at the history of the symptoms, ruling out any learning disabilities, or physical problems or environmental factors

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Picture Glossary of Geological Landforms

Picture Glossary of Geological Landforms The Earth has a diverse landscape of made up of many different landforms. These landforms have been shaped by everything from humans to weather and even the shifting of the tectonic plates. These stunning photos of each landform type will help illustrate the wonders of nature all around us. Depositional Landforms Depositional Landforms  are  built up by movement of material, usually sediment. Alluvial Fan- Where sediment spills from hills into piles on plains. Bajada- Apron of debris built of many alluvial fans. Bar- Sediment piled across the mouth of a river or bay. Barrier Island- Long sandy bar that guards the coast. Beach- Sandy shore between land and sea. Delta- Where sediment fills the mouth of a river. Dune- Pile of fine sand built by the wind. Floodplain- Wide muddy flats flanking a river. Landslide- Sediment deposit created by mass movement. Lava Flow- Building block of volcanoes. Levee- Natural berm along a river, rarely seen today. Mud Volcano- Edifice built by eruptions of gas-charged sediment. Playa- Dry lake bed, typically dusty or salty. Spit- Bar or barrier island growing offshore into open water. Terrace- Ancient bench built into a vanished lake. Tombolo- Sandbar joining two pieces of land. Tufa Tower- Limy growth exposed as a mineral lake subsides. Volcano- Mountain that grows from the inside up. Special Galleries: Landslides, Tombolos, Mud Volcanoes Erosional Landforms Erosional Landforms  are carved by the forces of erosion. Erosion is when landmasses are shaped by water. Arch- Short-lived natural bridges of stone. Arroyo- Flat-floored streambed typical of deserts. Badlands- Mazelike area of strong stream dissection. Butte- Narrow table mountain or abruptly rising stone hill. Canyon- Large, steep-walled rocky valley. Chimney- Column of rock standing in the water off a beach. Cliff- Precipitous rock face of various heights. Cirque- Mountainside bowl shaped by a glacier. Cuesta- Ridge of hard rock beds that slope gently. Gorge- High-walled rocky valley cut by vigorous waters. Gulch- Steep and narrow ravine eroded by flash floods. Gully- Small channel cut into a soft material. Hanging Valley- Stream bed that ends in a waterfall. Hogback- Ridge of hard rock beds that slope steeply. Hoodoo- Tall rock column carved by desert erosion. Hoodoo Rock- Bizarre rock shape carved by desert erosion. Inselberg- Remnant rock knob typical of deserts. Mesa- Table mountain, steep-sided and flat-topped. Monadnock- Mountainous remnant of widespread regional erosion. Mountain- Large, rocky hill with a peak. Ravine- Narrow, rocky valley carved by water. Sea Arch- Arch cut by ocean waves. Sinkhole- Collapsed ground where underlying rock has been removed. Tor- Rounded rocky knob unearthed from an underground origin. Valley- In general, low ground with high ground around it. Volcanic Neck- Solid lava core of a former volcano. Wash or Wadi- Streambed that is usually either dry or flooded. Water Gap- River valley that cuts through a rock ridge. Wave-Cut Platform- Rock surface cut flat by long exposure to surf. Yardang- Sediment shape carved by fierce desert winds. Tectonic Landforms Tectonic Landforms are made by movements of Earths crust such as earthquakes.   Escarpment- Large cliff usually made by faulting. Fault Scarp- Short-lived sign of earthquake displacement. Pressure Ridge- When push comes to shove, rock rises. Rift Valley- Formed by splitting lithospheric plates. Sag Basin- When pull comes to tug, rock falls. Shutter Ridge- High ground pulled sideways across a stream. Stream Offset- Disruption of a waterway by repeated fault motion.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Market Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Market - Essay Example The mobile phone is an advanced form of the Samsung Galaxy S3. It is also a differentiated product of the rival mobile phone company, Apple. Of late, Samsung has positioned itself to take over the market for manufacture of smart phones. The company has been innovative because they were among the first to manufacture smart phone. A smart phone is a mobile phone that is built on a mobile operating system that has more advanced capability of computing and connectivity as compared to the common feature phone (Tidd, 1997). The phone is made up of very special features that make it different from other smart phones and, thus more preferred by many people. Such features include owner recognition ability, high processing speed; a screen that is only recognizes the owner and finger prints identification ability. Industry and market structure of Samsung Galaxy S4 Samsung operates in the telecommunications sector. This is because the company manufactures gadgets used for communicating, such as mobile phones, laptops, tablets and smart TV’s. Samsung Galaxy S4 itself is used to exchange messages, telephone calls, and emails. This phone in a competitive market because there are other smart phone companies, for example, Apple, Techno, LG, Nokia and Alcatel. However, Samsung has been more innovative thus has gained a competitive advantage over these other companies because it has managed to differentiate its products from other rival products. Samsung Company has warehouses in many locations in the world. The major locations are China, Singapore, Japan and India. The most productive of all these firms is located in China. China has the largest population in the world that supplies cheap labour to the Samsung firm in China. The population is also well equipped with the latest manufacturing technology that ensures materials are not wasted. In addition, China has all the minerals that are required to manufacture the several parts of this phone. All these cheap deals put Sa msung at a competitive advantage. In addition, China enjoys cheap electrical energy from coal and nuclear power. This combination of cheap overheads makes the final product cheap compared to those of the rival companies (Urban, 1980). Samsung Galaxy S4 can also be said to be in a competitive market because it experience competition from other electronic companies that produce communication gadgets. For example, companies that manufacture laptops are in competition because they all access internet and used to achieve other communication purposes (Tidd, 1997). The phone is also in competition with iPhone, iPod and tablet companies, thus it is experiencing true competition. Elasticity of Samsung Galaxy S4 Samsung Galaxy S4 is a special product because its demand rises despite the high price. The smart phone is bought, especially, by those with high disposable incomes. However, it is also bought as a product to show off especially by people who do not have enough disposable income. The product was made with target customer being the well off in society but many have acquired it because of its versatile nature (Urban, 1980). The product, therefore, experiences complete elastic kind of demand. Elastic kind of demand has very little or no effect on, especially price of luxuries such as Samsung galaxy S4. Therefore, the price of the phone remained constant despite competition from Apple, Nokia and LG. Laws of supply and demand have affecting production and pricing of Samsung Galaxy